For more holistic inventory estimation, this paper uses a hybrid approach to access the carbon footprintof Xiamen City in 2009. Besides carbon emissions from the end-use sector activities (called Scope 1 þ 2 byWRI/WBCSD) in normal research, carbon emissions from the cross-boundary trafﬁc and the embodiedenergy of key urban imported materials (namely Scope 3) were also included. The results are as follow:(1) Carbon emissions within Scope 1 þ 2 only take up 66.14% of total carbon footprint, while emissionswithin Scope 3 which have usually been ignored account for 33.84%. (2) Industry is the most carbon-intensive end use sector which contributes 32.74% of the total carbon footprint and 55.13% of energy useemissions in Scope 1 þ 2. (3) The per capita carbon footprint of Xiamen is just about one-third of that inDenver. (4) Comparing with Denver, the proportion of embodied emissions in Xiamen was 10.60% higherthan Denver. Overall, Xiamen is relatively a low-carbon city with characters of industrial carbon-intensive and high embodied emissions. Further analysis indicates that the urbanization and indus-trialization in Xiamen might cause more material consumption and industrial emissions. These highlightthe importance of management for Scope 3 emissions in the developing cities.