World cultural and natural heritage sites are an important part of the wealth of humankind, but their protection is threat-ened by rapid urbanisation. In this paper, we assessed urbanisation-related pressures on the Old Town of Lijiang, using anintegrated method based on the analytic network process (ANP). In addition to the data from the governmental census, wealso employed satellite images, ecosystem services and sewage treatment data. The results of quantitative assessment of 16indicators demonstrated that the pressure on the Old Town of Lijiang from 1978 to 2009 has increased with urbanisation andeconomic development, with the highest pressure occurring in 2009 and the lowest in 1978. The pressure more than doubledbetween 2000 and 2009, and there was an exponential relationship between urbanisation rate and pressure, suggesting thata small increase in urbanisation rate can trigger a large increase in urbanisation-related pressure. It was found that increasesin population and tourism are the most crucial of the pressure indicators. The findings have significant implications forpromoting the protection of the Old Town of Lijiang and other world heritage sites under similar pressures.